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Is ethanol suitable for motorcycles?

Most motorcycle riders should steer away from ethanol-blended fuels, at least in the long term, as it may not be suitable.

Ethanol is a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of sugarcane or grain. In Australia, ethanol content in unleaded fuel is limited to 10% (E10) but some countries use 85% or even higher.

E10 is becoming more prevalent throughout Australian service stations and NSW service stations even have to stock a minimum requirement of the fuel.

The Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries lists the following motorcycles, scooters and ATVs for ethanol suitability:

E5 Suitable E10 Suitable
Aprilia  All motorcycles and scooters
BMW All motorcycles post 1986
Buell All motorcycles
Can-Am All ATVs & SSVs
Ducati All motorcycles    x     x
Harley Davidson All motorcycles post 1986
Honda All motorcycles and All Terrain Vehicles x x
Hyosung All motorcycles x x
Husqvarna All motorcycles          
Indian All motorcycles     √     √
Kawasaki All motorcycles and All Terrain Vehicles with the exception of the list below x x
Kawasaki KLX110A/C/D (KLX110/L) 2006-2012 models, KL250J (Stockman) 2006-2012 models, KLX250T (KLX250S) 2009-2012 models, KLX250W (KLX250SF) 2010-2012 models, KL650E (KLR650) 2008-2012 models, KLE650A (Versys) 2008-2009 models, KLE650D (Versys ABS*) 2010-2012 models, ER650A (ER-6n) 2006-2008 models, ER650C (ER-6n) 2009 model, ER650D (ER-6n ABS*) 2009-2011 models, EX650A (ER-6f) 2006-2008 models, EX650C (Ninja 650R) 2009 model, EX650D (Ninja 650R ABS*) 2010-2011 models, ZR750L (Z750) 2007-2012 models, EJ800A (W800) 2011 2012 models, VN900B ( Vulcan 900 Classic) 2006-2011 models, VN900C (Vulcan 900 Custom) 2006-2011 models* E10 fuel is approved for use in these LAMS variants models
KTM All motorcycles          √
Moto Guzzi All fuel-injected motorcycles


    √     √
Piaggio All fuel-injectedmotorcycles/scooters
Polaris All motorcycles
Suzuki All motorcycles and All Terrain Vehicles except the two stroke range    
Triumph All motorcycles
Vespa All fuel-injectedmotorcycles/scooters
Victory All motorcycles
Yamaha All motorcycle and All Terrain Vehicles

Ethanol doesn’t work with carburettors or mechanical fuel injection. It is also a solvent which attacks metallic and rubber-based fuel lines, and has an affinity to water that can cause steel fuel tanks to rust.

But one of the confusing things for riders is the octane rating. (Octane is a measure of a fuel’s ability to resist engine knocking or pinging which is an uncontrolled burn in the engine that can cause damage. Higher octane fuels resist knocking.)

Most E10 is rated at 95 RON which seems like it could be suitable for bikes that require that higher octane rating.

However, RACQ executive manager technical and safety policy, Steve Spalding, says ethanol-blended, higher-octane fuels may not necessarily meet the correct fuel requirements for a vehicle designated to run on PULP.

While the RON may be high enough, there is another property in fuel, called Motor Octane Number (MON), which is rarely specified on the bowser.

MON is usually about 10 numbers lower than RON, so a MON of 85 would be ok for a bike rated at 95 RON.

However, ethanol fuels have much lower MON numbers than their RON which could be too low for your bike.

Either ask the servo for the MON rating or fill up non-ethanol premium unleaded fuel of 95 RON or higher.

It is always best to have a higher octane rating than a lower one even though modern engine management systems have knock sensors that can handle lower octane.

If there is no choice but to fill up with ethanol fuel, make sure your next fill is with a high-octane fuel.

Some riders believe they are doing the planet, farmers and their hip pocket a service by filling up with ethanol, but that debate is very complex and far from definitive.

We won’t begin to tackle the environmental concerns which are not proven anyway, but we do believe it is not doing your hip pocket any favours, even though E10 is usually a few cents cheaper per litre.

There is about 3% less energy content in a litre of E10 compared with unleaded fuel which means your engine performance and fuel economy will be 3% worse, or to put it another way, your range will be limited by 3%.

The price of E10 would need to be at least 3% less than ULP for riders to even break even on the fill.

Some outback riders will have noticed servos in the Northern Territory and remote communities selling Opal fuel.

It is a type of fuel developed by BP that prevents petrol sniffers from getting high. Unleaded fuel is banned in these areas.

There is nothing for motorcycle riders to fear from Opal as it has similar properties and performance outcomes to regular ULP (91 RON). There is no evidence to support claims that Opal does any damage to engines that can run on 91 RON.